Intelligence Secret of Dolphins

Talking about intelligence in the animal world, bottlenose dolphin is the champion. These animals not only can use the tool, but also can recognize themselves, and even communicate with each other and humans.
Two bottlenose dolphins put on an acrobatic show. (Picture from:
Why does the bottlenose dolphins are smarter than other animals? The answer lies in the evolution of genes that play a role in brain function and metabolism.

"We're interested in what makes a great brain from the molecular perspective," said Michael McGowen, researchers from Wayne State University School of Medicine, in Detroit, Michigan, United States.

McGowen examined the genes in the genome of dolphins to find out the similarities that have changed in the genealogies of the dolphin. They also observed a similar possibility in the primate lineage.

A total of 10 thousand genes of bottlenose dolphins in comparison with the genes of cows, horses, dogs, rats, elephants, chickens, and humans. The result, "The cow to be the closest relatives of dolphins," said McGowen.

Gene mutation was also studied to examine the genes that have evolved or "selected genes", ie, genes that changed and passed on to subsequent generations. How to find out is to compare these genes with analogous genes from other species.

Dolphins genes expressed more actively developed within a certain time if you have a change in DNA (mutations) more than, for example, cattle genes.

Their research shows that more than 200 genes changed dolphins. A total of 27 genes of which are involved in the nervous system, such as the brain and sensory organs.

McGowen said the drastic changes that occur in a linear manner in genes involved in nervous system with the normal metabolism genes. Therefore, brain tissue always use more energy.

"Changes in this gene can certainly alter cognitive capacities of dolphins are amazing," he said.

But researchers found not only reveals the findings of the smart genes in dolphins. They also discovered that dolphins have evolved more slowly than some other animal species. This condition is also seen in large-brained mammals. *** [LIVESCIENCE | MAHARDIKA SATRIA HADI | KORAN TEMPO 3927]
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